The role of Chinese science and technology in reducing global poverty

Food security is one of the most important issues for any country. At present, the per capita food production in China is 483.5 kg. This is more than the globally recognized safety limit of 400 kg. China has ensured its food security. In addition, Chinese agricultural technology is used in other countries in the world outside the country. In 2008, the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences launched the cultivation of super green rice in poor areas of Asia and Africa. It’s actually the International Agricultural Poverty Alleviation Project. So far, it has been cultivated in 18 countries in Asia and Africa on a total of 61 lakh 20 thousand hectares.

A Kenyan journalist said that China has already achieved many exemplary successes. It is not just China that has benefited from these successes. For example: China’s contribution to global poverty reduction for decades is 70%. This means that China’s success is the success of the world.

Protracted starvation is sub-Saharan Africa’s biggest problem. The Russian-Ukrainian conflict began in February this year. As a result, the food crisis in Africa has worsened. Most of the inhabitants of this vast continent depend on agricuslture. For example: Agriculture accounts for 40% of Nigeria’s GDP. However, 70% of the country’s population works in agriculture. There is still a food crisis in Nigeria. Every year, the country has to spend huge sums of money to import rice, wheat, sucrose and fish.

In 2008, the largest international poverty alleviation project of super green rice cultivation was launched by China. The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and 58 domestic and overseas rice research laboratories participated with financial support from the Chinese government and the Bill Gates Fund. The concept of super green rice or super green rice was first proposed by Chinese professor Chang Chi Fa in 2005. This rice is of good quality, high yield and has various properties including disease and pest resistance , water saving and drought resistance.

Why is this type of rice necessary? About 50 years ago, there were two major successes in rice breeding in China. It became an important part of the world’s first green revolution. In the 1960s, China’s rice production increased by 20% through dwarf breeding, and the discovery of hybrid rice in the 1970s increased production by another 20%. In 1989, the International Rice Research Institute came up with the concept of Super Rice. As a result, the Super Rice Seed Breeding Scheme was launched. Since then, over the next 30 years, new varieties of rice have been discovered through the efforts of Chinese experts, and the efficiency of rice production has increased day by day.

Of course, there were issues with that too. Especially super rice needs a lot of water and fertilizer. However, 70% of Chinese rice fields do not have such an environment. Second, if more paddy is grown, the use of fertilizer damages land and rivers. In addition, the environment is also spoiled. In addition, China is a country prone to drought and water scarcity. China is one of the countries with the lowest water resources in the world at 13 per capita. Also, high and low tampatra, droughts and floods occur occasionally in recent years. This makes agricultural production more precarious. Thus, the super green rice project started in China. China is working using its own overseas experience.

From September 2008 to February 2019, China conducted three trials of super green rice in East Africa, West Africa, Southeast Asia and South Asia, as well as in the Chinese provinces of Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi and Ningxia.

China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world and the first country in the world to discover and spread hybrid rice. China is also advanced in super green rice research. China’s experience has therefore been useful to African farmers. However, Africa’s land, environment and farming practices are very different from China’s. If you want to use China’s experience directly, you won’t.

China chose Nigeria and Mali in West Africa. Because Mali has a mature seed verification system and is located in the middle of West Africa. Agricultural research in Nigeria is relatively advanced. First by exhibiting and promoting to local seed companies. Then, these seeds are given to local farmers. If good results are obtained in both countries within three years, it will be introduced in West Africa and even throughout Africa. (Dew/Enum/Ruby)

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